Por Valeska Escobar Dic 2016. El mundo tecnológico está en constante evolución y no es sorprendente que las tecnologías “invadan” todos los aspectos de la vida del ser humano, incluyendo por su supuesto la economía. De esta manera, Bitcoin y la Tecnología Blockchain han estado revolucionando desde los negocios y el sistema financiero hasta las compañías de seguros, e incluso las formas de distribución de energía, entre otros sectores de la industria global. La tecnología lanzada por Satoshi Nakamoto (como se hace llamar a sí mismo su misterioso creador) dio pie a un sin número de aplicaciones y usos. Además de Bitcoin, la Blockchain ha servido para la creación de otras criptomonedas, y estas se han vuelto muy populares y útiles para pequeños –y grandes– problemas en transacciones con dinero, sobre todo aquellas de índole internacional. Sin embargo, tanto bitcoin como otras monedas digitales, son frecuentemente asociadas al mercado negro y a la Deep Web.
Ricardo Hausmann is Director of Harvard's Center for International Development and Professor of the Practice of Economic Development at the Kennedy School of Government. Previously, he served as the first Chief Economist of the Inter-American Development Bank (1994-2000), where he created the Research Department. He has served as Minister of Planning of Venezuela (1992-1993) and as a member of the Board of the Central Bank of Venezuela. He also served as Chair of the IMF-World Bank Development Committee. He was Professor of Economics at the Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administracion (IESA) (1985-1991) in Caracas, where he founded the Center for Public Policy. His research interests include issues of growth, macroeconomic stability, international finance, and the social dimensions of development. He holds a PhD in economics from Cornell University.
CAIRO, Nov. 12 (UPI) -- The International Monetary Fund approved a $12 billion loan for Egypt, an effort to revive the country's struggling economy by "restoring stability and confidence in the economy, and implementing structural reforms that will create jobs," officials said. The approval allows for the first installment of the three-year loan, $2.75 billion, to be immediately disbursed. The remainder of the loan will be phased in over the duration of the program, subject to five reviews, the IMF said.
Utilizing a decision tree does not require a PhD. All that's needed is a basic understanding of probability. Here's a step-by-step process you can follow to use the principles in your decision making: Understand the different outcomes that could happen (both positive and negative) Calculate the expected return or loss of each outcome: Attach a probability to each outcome Understanding the magnitude of the return or loss Multiple the probability by the magnitude (probability of winning * value of win) - (probability of losing * cost of the loss) Add up and subtract all of the expected returns and losses To get started you don't need to know the exact probabilities. Just following the process will give you unique insights you wouldn't have had otherwise (i.e., the power of unlikely big bets and the risk of Russian roulette decisions).
The decentralization effects of blockchain-based cryptocurrencies are hitting the venture capital industry in more ways than one. Whereas the traditional venture capital industry is boring, the crypto-tech industry has become more exciting. Actually, I see the two models as diametrically opposed: one is a closed market, dominated by command-and-control practices, led by a few rich people on Sand Hill Road. The other is a widely open global market where anyone can play, and where the gains and risks are more evenly distributed. This has led to a re-thinking of how startups who are operating in the blockchain space can raise money, and it has potential implications that will revamp the relationships that venture capital firms can hope to strike with these startups. As an investor, advisor or board member, I have been closely associated with a variety of early stage companies that are tackling the innovation explosion around cryptocurrency and blockchain-based models, and have had the fortunate insights of seeing where we might be headed.
Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen on Monday took another victory lap for the US labor market. At the University of Baltimore's commencement, Yellen said that although there are still challenges, the jobs market is the strongest it has been in a decade. "The short version of what I have to say is that while I expect workers will continue to face some challenges in the coming years, I believe, for two reasons, that the job prospects and career opportunities for new graduates at this time are very good," Yellen said.
In the Middle East North Africa region $622 billion worth of development is planned in the energy sector for the next five years. The power sector accounts for the largest share at $207 billion, with the oil and gas sector at $195 billion and $159 billion respectively. Leading the drive will be Saudi Arabia, and Iraq and Iran will play catch-up. Algeria will pump billions into its upstream sector, and much is expected from Egypt’s recent gas. Renewable- energy projects will be at the forefront of efforts to meet rising power demand in Morocco, Tunisia and Jordan.
In August 2016 the Pew Research Center asked more than 2,000 U.S. adults about the state of the nation. Nearly half agreed that “compared with 50 years ago, life for people like you in America today is worse.” Of those who said they supported Donald Trump’s presidential campaign, 81% thought life has gotten worse. Economists had a field day pointing out the error of the respondents’ ways. By almost every objective measure, an overwhelming majority of Americans are better off today than in the 1960s. Houses are bigger and come with air conditioning. Crime rates are lower. Air and water pollution have been much reduced. Medical conditions that constituted death sentences are now mere annoyances. Fifty years ago, the telephone service for one in four U.S. households was a party line shared with the neighbors; today a “phone” is a private, portable device that is tens of thousands times more powerful than the computers that guided Apollo 11.
A well-known obstacle to the greater popularity of Bitcoin as a medium of payment is the high volatility of its exchange value. This volatility results from its built-in quantity commitment: because the number of Bitcoins in existence stays on a programmed path, variations in the real demand to hold Bitcoin must be accommodated entirely by variations in its unit value. When demand goes up, there is no quantity increase to dampen the rise in price; and vice-versa for a fall in demand. Not surprisingly, several cryptocurrency developers have thought of creating a cryptocurrency with a price commitment–namely a pegged exchange rate with the US dollar–rather than a quantity commitment, in hopes of greater popularity. The aim is to create a system in which dollar-denominated payments can be made with the ease, security, and low cost of Bitcoin payments, but without the exchange-rate risk.
With Deloitte as one of the Big Four auditors, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA) and the region’s top five banks have officially launched a Blockchain platform for trade finance. Earlier this month, HSBC, Bank of China, Bank of East Asia, Hang Seng Bank and Standard Chartered co-introduced a proof of concept Blockchain platform for use with trade finance operations which include lending, issuing letters of credit, factoring, export credit and insurance. Joshua Kroeker, the senior product manager for global trade and receivables finance at HSBC, stated that the Hong Kong government along with Deloitte and partner banks launched the Blockchain platform to demonstrate the technology’s potential in the conventional finance industry. More importantly, Kroeker emphasized that HKMA and the five participant banks are aiming to utilize Blockchain technology to increase efficiency, transparency and security in trade finance while eliminating the possibility of fraudulent activities by automating most processes.